Julia is a Senior Managing Economist at the American Institutes for Research, a Professor of Economics, BETA University of Strasbourg CNRS, Chercheur, Observatoire des Sciences et des Techniques, Paris and Professor, Melbourne Institute of Applied Economics and Social Research, University of Melbourne. She was formerly Director of the National Science Foundation‚Äôs Science of Science and Innovation Policy program, Senior Vice President at NORC at the University of Chicago and Senior Research Fellow at the US Census Bureau. She has authored over 70 refereed articles and edited or authored seven books. She has been working with a number of national governments to document the results of their science investments. Her work has been featured in Science and Nature, and she has testified on the topic to both the US Congress and the European Parliament. She is a coeditor, with the late Jack Marburger, of the Handbook of Science of Science Policy.